Referencing the text, name 2 positive outcomes and 2 negative outcomes that come from visual electronic media use in childhood. Also referencing the text/research, if you were working with a parent who needed guidance on screen use for children, what information might you share?

The text discusses visual electronic media use in childhood and how it can both positive and negative outcomes. Let us look at television watching. One negative outcome of watching too much television before age 3 is having difficulty regulating attention later. Another negative outcome is that watching too much television takes away from other activities that are detrimental to a child’s cognitive development. A positive result would be that if a child is watching educational television his/her vocabulary growth before kindergarten will improve. Another positive outcome of using visual electronic media is that it allows a child to become more tech savvy which is needed in our ever evolving society.

If I was working with a parent who needed guidance on screen use for children I would need to educate the parent on the pros and cons of screen use. While electronic media can be beneficial to a child’s development, too much exposure can be harmful. I would advise the parent that the type of programs (educational versus entertainment) that a child is exposed to also plays a role in trying to decide how much screen use is appropriate for the child.


There are four specific parenting styles. I am going to focus on my own parent, my mother. My mother will fall under the Authoritarian style. According to the text, the authoritarian style means that a parent is low on responsiveness, but highly demanding. This style most accurately describes my mother and upbringing. As a child, my mother never really showed much emotion or affection towards me. This was very difficult to accept growing up. She would always tell me what I needed to do and I never had the option to give my opinion. She always had to have a sense of control, even to this day she still tries to control me. Growing up my mother always used the fact that she was my mother against me and that nothing she did was ever wrong or her fault. I was always faulted for even trying to speak up or give an opinion. I was told I was talking back, being disrespectful and that I needed to stay in a child’s place.

Because of my mothers authoritarian parenting style, she and I still have issues to this day. Our communication is horrible, which is common with this type of parenting style. When I was a child I was never able to talk to my mother. Towards others my mother is very social and outgoing, but when it comes to me, her child, she is very distant and controlling. This has affected me in many ways throughout my life.


Reflecting on the New York Longitudinal Study (1977) of behavioral traits of infants, how might the effectiveness of caregiving behaviors be different for children with each temperament (name and address 3 traits specifically)? How could that affect level of attachment between caregiver/parents and child?

The effectiveness of caregiving may be different for children with various temperaments in that the child’s behavior is the basis for the caregivers behavior. a caregiver is going to react in different ways based on the temperament of the child. The book discusses how traits affect temperament. For example a child with a high activity level may be difficult for a caregiver to cope with. The book also discusses the mood trait and adaptability. The mood trait discusses how a child expresses himself such as their reaction to a particular situation. For example if a child is very attached to their caregiver and the caregiver walks away form the child, the child will become distressed and try to gain the attention of the caregiver. ¬†With adaptability, if a child goes through long periods of withdrawals from the caregiver it is interesting to see how long it takes the child to adjust without the caregiver being there.

The temperament of the child and how a caregiver reacts to the child can affect the level of attachment between the child and the caregiver. For example if a child is very active, the caregiver may not know how to deal with the child and may isolate themselves from the child. This could harm the child’s development later in life and how the child interacts with others. it also regulates the type of care that the child may need based on the temperament of the child.


Decreasing play activity for more academics can pose both negative and positive affects on a child’s development. It is important for a child to play because playing is essentially learning. For example, children play to explore how things work. Children also engage in pretend play that allows them to further develop the mind. A child might imitate his father hammering a nail after watching him install a shelf in the garage. This factor will stay with the child and is a learned behavior that you hammer nails into wood or objects to keep them together. Children also learn from other children by playing and interacting with one another. A child can learn from the children he or she plays with and gain an understanding of differences and other cultures based on their interactions with the other children. Their language skills and social skills improve which are needed to function in society. Even if a child plays with an older sibling he/she might learn more by observing and interacting with their sibling. By reducing play time and focusing more on academics a child can miss critical parts of development. If play is taken away too early and more focus is placed on academics it can hinder a child from growing to their full potential.